If a story's character name is not in the story title or description, but only within the story itself, would a Google search see it and report it in its results?
Google can see what anybody can see when not logged in. So if a word occurs at the beginning (first half) of the text, then google can see it.
The discrepancy is because SOL is on google's bad side. I have no clue why, but Google doesn't like SOL. Search for 'sex stories' for example. Even though SOL is one of the top 5 sites on the internet size wise and history wise, we end up on page 6 or 7 of google's results.
Google doesn't keep enough of SOL's pages in its index for some reason. Every 5 days Google scans SOL and accesses roughly 75,000 page, from listings to story text. Yet when I check the indexed pages using Google's webmaster tools, it tells me that it has 29,000 pages (out of over 300,000 in SOL's engine).
So when you search for something that you know is on SOL using google, odds are google won't show it to you. But if you do a site search on Google using the site: command, then google does show it. I think that the site: command forces google to show you anything from the site's pages that it crawled even when it doesn't show it in normal search results.