Ernest and Crumbly are two such authors from what I recall. I don't know if they assign portions of their outlines to chapters,
Ye spoke of the devil, so ...
OK, there's story planning and there's story planning. There are many ways to plan stories. I've seen authors who lay out a story plan much the way a movie director does a story board. However, I use a different method.
Many of my stories start with a single scene or concept which I make a note of then let my creative mind work with it to see what it can come up with. By the time I get around to actually writing the story I have the basic points laid out in my mind (along with the basics of the characters), but I don't always have every step set out yet. Think of it like driving from New York to Los Angeles, you have a start, you have an ending, and have decided you want to stop at Columbus, St Louis, Kansas City, and Denver to see people along the way. However, you haven't yet decided on every road or over night stop, and are also thinking about a few detours to Pittsburgh, Des Moines, and Salt Lake but not yet sure if you will go to any of them or all of them or what. In many areas there are multiple ways you can go, in others there's not much choice. Then, you may also decide to end up at San Diego instead of Los Angeles or after Los Angeles. The final route of the journey is often decided while in transit. Once I decide on all the important stops I start writing and will make the equivalent of stops for fuel and meals and rest as I go. Part of the minor parts of the story development comes from how I round out and finalize the characters I'm creating, and then I let them act within their own behaviour patterns.
Then some things change the story while it's being written due to the research to make sure I don't make mistakes like having a 1867 invention used in 1863 etc. In Stand in Time I mention using a mirror like item to see what cards are dealt while playing poker. I know about this as many such cheats use highly polished cigarette lighters to do this, but the story is set before cigarette lighters are invented, so it becomes a shiny metal match holder which were common at that time. Many of the scenes in Play Ball were amended on the advice of an editor who umpires baseball. The final scene still had the dramatic effects I was going for, but they were more realistic within the rules and the play of the game than what I'd originally thought of doing.
In short, I plan a story like a large military campaign in I establish the units (characters), key targets (story and plot points), then start in writing the story but responding to changes as required after the plan gets under way. A major example of this is a couple of stories where I was working with others but they stopped being involved before the story was finished, so I've worked to finish the first half of the story as an appropriate stop point and I'll go back to complete the rest at a later date as the link scenes between the starts and some of the end points haven't yet been done.
The other things to keep in mind is the construction of a story. The key components are the dialogue and actions that go into making scenes to create and move the story line and plot along. These have to be mixed in a suitable manner for the construction of each scene, and each set of scenes creates a story section. Then the scenes and sections go together to make chapters and / or sub-chapters which then go together to make the story. In every case each one has to be as long as it needs to be to deliver what it is you want to deliver. Then you need to break the story components up in a way that makes sense while still transitioning from one to the next without losing the reader.
With transitioning I also like to make it easy for the reader to note where they are within the story in case they have to put the story down. I always envision the reader as reading the story in one go, but being interrupted by real life events, so I want them to be able to quickly return to where they were when the interruption arrived. Thus I use a variety of things to indicate scene breaks - horizontal rules, section headings, sub-chapter breaks and headings, chapter breaks and headings, and in some cases I split the story up into story books within the one story - Flames of Life is such an example. Which I use at any point depends on the context at that point. One thing to keep in mind is sub-chapters and chapters should have a common thread through all that is within them, what that thread is will depend on the story and the context. Such breaks are to minimise reader confusion as to what is happening. I recently read a story where one scene went straight into another scene without any rbeak, but it took four paragraphs into the second scene for it to be clear the new scene is 2 months after the previous scene - that should have been made clear at the start of the scene or with a scene break of some sort, because the way it read was if they were all part of the same scene.
As an example, an episodal style story such as Debt Collection has each day as a chapter with sub-chapters for each session and and another sub-chapter for events between days with section headings for significant breaks.
I hope this helps you all out. I can tell, from experience, having even a basic plan helps to keep the story focused and moving along, and not posting until the story is finished helps to ensure you have everything properly related to each other. Sometimes you'll find scene 1,089 would work better if you had a small difference in scene 53, so not yet being published allows you to go back and make that change.