In 2012 things went downhill for a while then people started to realize the world wasn't ending right now. The prevailing thought was that since the world isn't ending, now what do I do. I would love to say humanity realized the foibles of their ways and sent about making sweeping changes to correct the damage. But as I said I would have liked to say that. By 2013 most of the world was back to business as usual. Thankfully for humanity there were some positive changes brought about thanks to our feared destruction. Most of the countries in Europe were very "green" as they liked to say. This only slowed down the inevitable and made several large and prominent, as well as, developing countries think they could slow down and cheapen out on going green. It was a mistake that was easily seen after it was too late.
The first humongous break through that allowed humanity to escape our self made titanic was not at first recognized in potential. It was discovered by Robby Lee Frikke, a physicist at the University of North Carolina. Robby Lee's discovery was a very large surprise to the rest of the world because it came in the form of an improved SAFER barrier for use in NASCAR and other motor sports. Robby Lee was as I said a physicist but he had two major hobbies or loves whichever seems better he loved playing around with magnets and he loved watching NASCAR. Robby was 22 years old when he went to a NASCAR race and witness the worst crash ever in the history of motor sports. Because of improvements in engines and aerodynamic bodies the cars at the race Robby attended were averaging green flag laps of 250mph or more not insanely fast until you factor in the weight of one of these vehicles. Thanks in part to the increases in speed and increasing government involvement, the cars were easily weighing in at around 4,500 pounds. Most of the added weight was from safety devices that were not easy to lighten up. The other added weight came from diagnostic tools and sensors on the vehicle and on the driver. Those needed a computer of courses that added more weight. So it all added up to a very fast and very heavy car.
It has often been said in one way or another throughout the history of man, that "god moves in mysterious ways" and that "he has a twisted sense of humor at times" as well. Robby Lee's life and the lives of countless others were changed thanks to one tiny piece of metal, a sensor probe in fact had become lodged in a crack in the track surface. It was thought by the crash investigators that because of how the cars were lined up and because of the speed involved the fist car drove over it in such a way that it became lodge upright and acted as a spick to puncture the right side tires of three cars before being dislodged, because of the sudden loss of both right side tires and the centriphical force involved, those three cars almost immediately went up the banked corner and into the wall at nearly a head on 90 degree collision. The drivers of the first two cars almost certainly died instantly the third drive wasn't so lucky.
The first car hit with enough force to punch through the reinforced cement wall and com to a stop mostly all the way through the wall the second car hit the first instants later. The second car hit hard enough to disintegrate the first car and itself into thousand of razor sharp pieces of metal along with more of the wall.
The third driver probably knew what was going to happen to him and his car, if he did I truly pity him for it must have horrified him. The third car blasted through the gap in the wall at nearly full speed where he hit part of the first two cars ramping him into the air were he then crashed into the bottom row of the grandstand killing 3 and causing the front of his car to dig in and pole vault the rest of his car end over end into the stands were it flipped 7 times each time it hit the car killed 5 people because they had no time to move it happened so fast. When it finally stopped it landed on top of 6 people killing 4 more. With the death of over 40 people the investigation was huge and exhaustive in money time and man power. It had the same conclusion that Robby came to just hours after he witnessed the crash, the walls needed to be stronger. Robby work for almost a year before he had a prototype to give to the government and NASCAR officials to test out. Humanity was very lucky that rednecks love to threaten their elected officials if they think NASCAR might be shut down.
Robby's designs used the repulsing and attracting power of magnets and the polarity changes of ac electrical power to create his "force wall". It seems that for every one that hears about this the first time, but his designs had nothing to do with the force shields in use now the reason we are talking about Robby Lee Frikke and NASCAR is because the force wall eventually became the repulser drive. Now as I said the usefulness of this design wasn't seen right away. It in fact took five years for a scientist too make the leap from alternating attracting and repelling to just repelling after that it was just a matter of time until it was used a weapon very similar to a rail gun but not as good. It might be of interest to note that the modern particle rifle came into existence before the repulser drive. Of course any one that has ever taken a class about space travel or even watched an edutainment video knows that the repulse drives are now used as a last resort weapon because they are very similar to the original rifles, just much bigger and less accurate now to make this much easier to understand and make it much simpler think of a particle rifle as a snipers weapon without bullet drop and a repulser drive as a sawed off shotgun. This analogy is of course horribly simplified but it is a good one to the simple minded.