There would be some wind as the Earth tended to spin out from under the atmosphere. That's what causes the west to east atmospheric flow.
Not sure what you mean by "spin out from under the atmosphere" and "west to east flow".
The Earth's rotation drags the atmosphere along with it. The atmosphere at ground level is moving along with the rotation of the Earth- that's having a nice calm windless day.
The poles are colder than the equatorial regions, so the general movement of air is from the equator, upwards, down to the poles, then back towards the equator at ground level. Rinse & repeat.
Of course here & there are land masses (some very large, others not. Some heavily covered in vegetation, others not. Some very wet, others not), which heat the air more than the oceans, so you get other rising regions of air adding to the general equator-pole flow. And because there are cooler parts amongst the warmer, you get some areas of descending air there as well- all within the general equator-polar flow.
Because of the rotation of the earth, and air being a fluid, you end up with coriolis forces.
End result- winds, high & low pressure systems, bands at various latitudes of high & low pressure (roaring 40s, the doldrums, the jet stream etc), and weather comes from the east or the west depending on where you are in relation to these regions.
And then of course local geography has it's own effect- high mountain ridges, plateaus etc.
The shell would keep heat inside it because it could not escape; thus, the shell would warm up and only radiate some of the heat back to the planet.
If we consider the shell a perfect insulator- it lets nothing in, nor lets anything out.
The end result would be a drop of the Earth's temperatures to pretty much the same all over- poles to equator, ground level up to the shell.
As we are burning fuels, producing heat through nuclear reactions etc and the Earth's own production/release of heat the temperature would very, very, very (not enough verys) slowly rise from what ever it did drop to, and be (many verys) slightly warmer at ground level than higher altitudes.
The warmest areas would be around volcanoes, open areas of lava, geothermal regions.
I'm nothing close to smart enough to contemplate the maths required, but I suspect the temperature would drop to extremely low levels before starting to increase again; and I don't see any of us (or most other animals surviving that).
Wild arse guess, -120°c or lower (check out Mars).
The radioactive elements under the ground do a lot to heat the biosphere.
Heat from the Earth is estimated at 0.09W/m*m
Heat from the Sun is estimated as 341.3W/m*m